NORMANDY

Départments
Calvados Eure Manche Orne Seine-
Maritime
         
Calvados
Commune
Bayeux Caen Campigny Dampierre Friardel St-Gabriel-Brécy Hotot-en-Auge
Lisieux Mondeville Sainte-Marie-aux-Anglais        
Bayeux -  Cathedral of Notre-Dame
Canon Gervvaise de Larchamp (1439) In the crypt. He is also depicted in the wall painting under the arch beind the effigy Purbeck marble tomb slab
 
Caen - L'Abbaye aux Hommes & L'Abbaye aux Dames
William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders, founded two abbeys outside the walls of Caen and at opposite sides of the city: L'Abbaye aux Hommes (Church of St Étienne) (left) and L'Abbaye aux Dames (Church of the Trinity) (right) and they were buried in their respective foundations. Park in one of the many car parks of the city.  There is no entry fee and no charge for photography in either church. L'Abbaye aux Hommes is open during normal hours but the opening times for L'Abbaye aux Dames is (or was) restricted so it is important to check these times.


The simple stone of Matilda still exists and her body still lies below. (left)

However that of William dates only from the nineteenth century. (above)

William's original monument, commissioned by his son William Rufus, was executed by Otto the Goldsmith and decorated with gold, silver and gems. A recumbent effigy was said to have been added later.

In May 1562 the church was pillaged during the Wars of Religion, and the tomb smashed, the King's bones being  thrown around the church. Only a thigh bone was recovered and this was returned to the church in 1642.

For the reburial a table tomb (above) was constructed in the quire but this, being found to cause obstruction, was removed and the bone placed under a floor slab in the sanctuary.
This was in turn smashed during the French Revolution and  present slab placed in 1802


Saint Gabriel-Brécy - Priory of Saint-Gabriel
A Prior of the 14th Century

Seine-Maritime
Commune
(Aumale) Bailleul-Neuville Biville-la-Baignarde Blainville-Crevon Bois-Guillaume Elbeuf-sur-Seine
Envermeu Eu Fécamp Le Havre Hodeng-au-Bose Jumièges
Limésy Ménerval Pavilly Rouen Valmont  
Aumale
Tomb slab of Clement de Longroy and Beatrice de Pons. Limestone with marble inlays. Although said to come from Aumale this monument is now unfortunately in the Cloisters Museum, New York
Fécamp - Abbey of the Trinity

Guillaume de Puto (1297)
11th abbot. Stone monument of 14th century.
There are three other monuments to abbots in the abbey: Richard d'Argences (1223) 7th abbot. 13th century monument, Thomas de St Benôit (1307) 12th abbot. 14th century monument and  Robert de Puto (1326) 13th abbot. 14th century monument

Eu


Eu is a small town with a surprising amount of history. The church contains a fine collection of medieval effigies while in the Chapel of Jesuits' College are two large monuments from the time of the Wars of Religion.
You can park free outside the church; avoid the blue marked spaces which are time limited






The Collegiate Church of Our Lady and Saint Laurent
This church closes on Mondays. Entry is free as is entry to the 12th century crypt where the monuments are located. There is no restriction on photography. The monuments are described in the order as you enter the crypt: first St Laurent O'Toole (on the west wall)  to you left and Charles d'Artois (on the north wall)  facing you. I have then described them in a clockwise direction around the walls.
 
Laurent O'Toole, Archbishop of Dublin, fell ill and died at Eu in 1180, on his way to visit King Henry II of England, then in Normandy, to admonish him for the latter's breaking terms of the Treaty of Windsor. He was buried in the nave of the church and miracles were reported at his tomb. Pilgrims and the sick began to visit the Archbishop's tomb and the canons in due course replaced the Romanesque church with a larger and finer building. A large crypt was constructed so that pilgrims could circulate round the tomb. The Archbishop was canonised in 1226, 45 years after his death.

His skull was brought to England in 1442 and buried in the parish church of Chorley, Lancashire; this was lost at the Reformation. His heart was brought to Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin but this was stolen in 2012.

During the Revolution the tombs were dismantled and taken into the crypt: later the coffins opened for their lead and the bones scattered.

Louis-Philippe, then Duke of Orléans and heir and successor to the counts of Eu, was the first to begin the restoration of  the monuments. Only the effigies remained from the destroyed monuments and their original sites were uncertain. The effigies alone were restored, there being no attempt to rebuild the superstructure of the monuments. The drawings in the collection of Gaignières were used as a guide in this restoration. The human remains were collected and placed in an ossuary constructed below the level of the crypt. The monuments were lined against the wall with men on the left and women on the right. They were set on sarcophagi with coats of arms and surmounted by epitaphs.

The restoration was complete by 1843.






St Laurent O'Toole (1180),
Archbishop of Dublin. Information about him is given above as well as links to his biography. The effigy clearly does not belong to the series of those of the Counts of Eu and the style of the effigy, as well as those of the details of the costume, dates it to the late 12th century. The restorations and mutilations are clearly seen



Cy gist tres noble et puissant seigneur monseigneur Charles d'Artois conte de Eu seigneur de Saint Walery sur la mer et de Houdeing en Artois et premier per de France, des contes de Eu fils de deffuncts Monseigneur Phelippe d'Artois jadis conte de Eu en son vivant connestable de France et de Madame Marie de Berry fille de Monseigneur Jehan fils du Roy de France premier Duc de Berry le quelle trespassa l'an de grace mil CCCCLXXI le XVII jour de juillet. Priez pour luy.

Charles d'Artois (1471), son of Phillipe. The effigy is of stone but the face and hands are of white marble. He wears the coronet of a count and his feet rest on a dog.
He played a part in the defence of the region during the invasion of Henry V during the 100 Years War but was taken prisoner at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; he remained in captivity in England for twenty three years. He died childless and was succeeded by his nephew John II, Count of Nevers.



Cy gist tres noble et hault prince monseigneur Phelippe d'Artois, jadis conte de Eu et connestable de France le quel trespassa en la ville de Micalice en Turquie je XVIe jour de juing l'an de grace mil CCC IIIIxx et XVII. Priez Dieu pour l'ame de luy - Amen

Philippe d'Artois (1397), son of John; he succeeded his brother Robert to the title. Effigy of white marble; feet on a lion, head and hands uncovered. The tomb was originally surrounded by a grill.
A talented soldier, he was appointed Constable of France (Supreme commander of the army) He went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land but was captured and imprisoned by the sultan of Egypt, being released at the intervention of the Venetians. The Turks had now reached Hungary and he led the French contingent of an allied army - of French, English, Germans and others -  to aid the king, Sigismund. The allied army was overwhelmed at the Battle of Nicopolis and Philippe was imprisoned in Analtolia where he died. The fact that Europe was at this time gripped by the Hundred Years War and weakened by the Western Papal Schism probably contributed to this defeat.
  



Philippe d'Artois (1397)
  Died in infancy. Marble wearing the coronet of a count. Feet on a lion. Son of Philippe.
Cy gist Phelippe d'Artoys fils de monseigneur Phelippe d'Artois jadis conte de Eu et connestable de France et de madame Marie de Berry contesse du di lieu qui trespassa à Eu le dymenche XXIIIe jour de décembre l'an mil IIᶜ IIIIxx et XVIII
 



Charles d'Artois (1368)
Died in childhood. Son of John & brother of Philippe. Feet on a greyhound.

Ci gist Charles d'Artois fils de monseigneur Jehan d'Artois conte de Eu et de ma dame Ysabeau de Meleum lequel trespassa l'an de grace mil CCC LXVIII le XVe jour d'avril. Pries pour luy
 






Cy gist tres noble et puissant seigneur conte Jehan d'Arthois, conte de Eu, fils de defunts monseigneur Robert d'Arthois jadis conte de Beaumont le Rogier et madame Jehanne de Valois sa fame qui fut fille de monseigneur Charles de Valois fils de Roi de France et père de Roi Philippe et de madame Katerine emperiere de constentinoble, jadis fame du dit monsigneur Charles le quel trepassa l'an mil CCC IIIxx et six le VIe jour du mois d'avril. Priez pour lui.

Jean d'Artois (1386). White marble. The county of Eu was given in 1350 to Jean d'Artois by King John II ('The Good'), the honour thus passing from the Brienne family to that of Artois. John was the son of Robert d'Artois (who, in dispute with his overlord the French king, Phillip VI (of Valois) fought with King Edward III against the French at the beginning of the 100 Years War.
Jean fought in the first part of the Hundred Years War and both he and King John were taken prisoners at the Battle of Poitiers and incarcerated in the Tower of London, being released after the Treaty of Brittany brought a temporary pause to the war. This treaty in which France lost many territories, allowed the King to return to France, with Jean d'Artois, to raise the ransom. Hostages were exchanged, one of John's sons being left in England; however he escaped so breaking the terms of the treaty. The King voluntarily retuned to England, with Jean of Artois, where he died. Jean d'Artois returned to France.



 


 



Isabelle de Melun (1389)
White marble. Wife of Jean d'Artois

Cy gist tres noble et puissante dame madame Ysabel de Meleun jadis fame de tres noble et puissant seigneur monseigneur Pierres conte de Dreux et depuis fame de tres noble and puissant seigneurJehan d'Artoi conte de Eu la quelle trespassa l'an de grace Mil CCC IIIIxx et IX jour de decembre. Priez Dieu pour son âme
 







Isabelle d'Artois (1379)  Daughter of John d'Artois and Isabelle de Melun
Chi gist Ysabel d'Artois fille de monseigneur Johan d'Artoys conte de Eu et de madame Ysabel de Meleun so fame laquele trespassa l'an de grace mil CCC LXXIX le XXVIe jour de juing. Priies pour luy
 







Cy gist tres noble et puissante dame madame Jehanne de Saveuses femme de tres noble et puissant seigneur monseigneur Charles d'Artois conte de Eu seigneur de Saint Walery sur la mer et de Houdeing en Artois la quelle trespassa ou chastel de Sancerre le second jour de mois de janvier l'an de grace mil CCCC quarante et huite. Priez Dieu pour son âme.



Jeanne de Saveuse (1448)
First wife of Charles d'Artois






Hélèlne de Melun (1472)
Of stone with face and hands of white matble Second wife of Charles d'Artois
Cy gist noble et puissante dame madame Héléne de Muleun fille de hault et puissant seigneur messire Jehan de Melun chevalier et de madame Jehanne d'Abbeville seigneur et dame d'Antraing d'Epinoy viconte de Gand et connestable de Flandre en son vivant fame de hault et puissant prince monseigneur Charles d'Artois conte de Eu et pair de France laquelle trespassa le XX juillet l'an de grace mil CCCC et LXXII. Priez pour son âme
 


Drawings in the Gaignières Collection of Monuments at Eu


To date I have only been able to discover the above two drawings, of the same monument,  of the monuments at Eu.in the Gaignières collection. They show that the monuments were almost certainly in the body of the church rather than the crypt where the effigies are now situated. They also show that the monuments (or, at least this one) were very fine indeed with an elaborate canopy and gablets above the heads of the effigies. The effigies in this example are paired - man with wife - and lie on a double tomb chest which has an inscription written around the edge of the upper slab of this chest. This can just be made out in the illustration, although hardly decipherable, and reads:

Cy gist tres noble et puissant seigneur Monseigʳ Jean d'Artois, Compte d'Eu fils de deffunt Monseigʳ

However the explanation below the drawings states that the monument is that of Jean d'Artois and Ysabel de Melun. If the drawings are compared with the photographs above it will be seen that, although the female effigies correspond, the drawing is stated to be that of Jean d'Artois and not Jean, as is stated on the epitaph in the church. The photograph shows that the effigy stated to be Jean in the church does not carry a shield, wears a jupon semé with fleurs de lys and wears a band around his hair as well as a beard. It is therefore very likely that the above drawing names the effigies correctly and that given in the church on the epitaph is incorrect.


Château of Eu
The château is open to the public for a modest fee. (€5.00 in2017)  It is in effect a museum

This effigy of a sleeping child may have been intended to be a church monument or a copy of a church monument, but I was unable to gain any information.

  Chapel of Jesuits' College 
(early 17th century)
 
No charge for entry or photography. Park as for church. There was an exhibition of fine glass in the nave when we visited. 






On either side of the chancel:
Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guise (1588) and Catherine of Clèves (1633)


Henry, Duke of Guise often appears as the French equivalent to the Tudor Dukes of Norfolk in film and televisions dramatisations. One of the Catholic leaders in the French wars of religion, he founded the Catholic League in order to prevent the Huguenot Henri, King of Navarre, succeeding to the French throne. He was responsible for arranging the murder of Admiral Coligny, the Huguenot leader, whom he considered to have organized the murder of his father; this murder  of Coligny was followed by the horrific St Bartholomew's Day Massacre. The weak and vacillating King Henry III initially sided with the Catholic League but not wishing to be a mere puppet to the Duke and following the defeat of the Spanish Amada (the Spanish supported the Catholic league)  his support waned. He invited the Duke and the latter's brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, to the Château of Blois where they were summoned to the King's presence in a private chamber; there two of the royal guards murdered them both in front of the King. The following Henry himself was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic, the friar Jacques Clément, who was at once killed by the King's guard.

City of Rouen
Park in the underground car park near the cathedral at relatively modest cost; or in one of the other car parks. All the buildings described are within reasonable walking distance, although you may prefer to drive to the museum and park nearby.

The Cathedral
Cathedral Church of Notre-Dame
Open daily (except Monday mornings) but check website. There is no charge for entry or photography. Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and the Cathedral the burial place of its early Dukes.

The Ambulatory



Richard I the Lion Heart (ob 1199).
This is the site of the heart burial, the heart itself now being  in the museum.
Richard was killed by cross bow at the castle of Chalus in the Haute-Vienne Department. His entrails were buried in the castle (where there is now a modern memorial), his body at Fontevraud and his heart at Rouen.
Note how this effigy differs from that at Fontevraud, being much more in the round more, resembling those at St Denis. He is also clean shaven 13th Century.

HIC.COR.CONDITUM.EST.RICARDI.ANGLORUM
.REGIS.QUI.COR.LEONIS.DICTUS.
.OBIIT.AN.M.C.XC.IX.
 

John Duke of Bedford, Regent of France. (1435 @ 36)

John was Henry V's younger brother and became regent during the minority of Henry VI. The regency of England was claimed by his youngest brother, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, but this claim was opposed by the council and he was only given the title of Protector; however, a will rediscover only in 1978 shows that Humphrey had been right.

John, an outstanding military commander, concentrated on the French wars and was successful until the rise of Joan of Arc. In 1431 the latter was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English.. Bedford initiated her trail and execution at Rouen.

He then arranged for Henry VI to be crowned King of France in Paris, according to the Treat of  Troyes.

This stone marks the site of the Regent's grave, his monument - or, at least the effigy - being destroyed during the Religious Wars in 1562.




Henry - The Young King (ob 1183)
Henry was the eldest son of King Henry II (and hence Richard's brother) who was crowned in his father's lifetime. He rebelled against his father and died young, Richard thus succeeded to their father's possessions. The 13th Century effigy was removed and buried in 1736; this is either a copy of  a restoration.

CUI.FRATER.FUIT.COR.LEONIS.DICTUS.HENRICUS.
IUNIOR.SEDEM.IN.NORMANNIA.ARMIS.IURIQUE.
NEGATAM.
AN.M.C.LXXXIII.A.MORTE.TANDEM.
HIC.ABGRE.TENUIT.
 

Rollo, Duke of Normandy (c 933)This is a modern copy  of the effigy accidentally destroyed during World War II

IN.SINU.TEMPLI.ROLLO.QUIESCIT.A.SE.VASTATAE.CONDITAE.NORMANNIAE. PATER.AC.PRIMUS.DUX.LABORE.QUI.FRACTUS. OCCUBUIT.OCTOGENARIO.MAIOR.AN.CM.XX

Rollo was a pagan Viking but was baptised here in 915 and buried here in 933. He was the founder of the Duchy of Normandy and father of William Longsword (below)

William Longsword, Duke of Normandy (942) 13th Century H.S.E.GUILLELMUS.LONGA.DICTUS.SPATHA. NORMANNIAM.QUI.SUIS.ROLLONIS.FILIUS.STATUIT
.IN.FINIBUS.PRODITORUM.INSIDUS.ANNO.CM.XLII.OCCISUS



Hugh III of Amiens, Archbishop of Rouen (1164)

Said to be the oldest recumbent effigy in France.

Lady Chapel St Joan of Arc's Chapel

The Lady Chapel is closed off from the main body of the church by a high metal grill with a locked gate.  Unfortunately there are several monument sited in this part of the cathedral and the only way I have been able to photograph them is with a long lens over the top of the grill. Some of these were taken with an old camera and will be replaced in due course.
To be replaced


Above:
The Cardinals d'Amboise (uncle and nephew), Archbishops of Rouen 1515-1525

Right:
Louis de Brézé (1531) Seneschal of Normandy. He was grandson of Agès Sorrel and married Diane de Poitiers. By Jean Cousin & Jean Gonjon (centre tomb in this photograph)

In the background is ( as far as I can tell) the tomb of
Cardinal Gustave Maximillien Juste de Croy-Soire (1844) Archbishop of Rouen


Above:
To the left of the Louis de Brézé tomb is the tomb of his grandfather  Pierre de Brézé (1465) Minister of Charles VII. He accompanied Margaret of Anjou to Scotland with a force of 2000 men but brought her back to Flanders after the Battle of Hexham. He died at the Battle of Montlhéry
The tomb was constructed in 1488. The effigies were removed in 1769 by the canons.
To the left of this tomb is the kneeling effigy of Cardinal Henri-Marie-Gaston Boisnormand de Bonnechose (1885) Archbishop of Rouen (not yet shown)


Archbishop Frédéric Fuzet (1899) By Gauquié(1918)



Some Tales of Burials and Monuments and their Destruction in the Cathedral

Henry the Young King  died of dysentery at Martel (Limousin) at the age of 28  in 1183, while campaigning against his father, Henry II, and his brother, the future  Richard I. He had wished to be buried at Rouen but when his funeral procession halted at Le Mans a group of citizens appeared and buried his body in the cathedral, with the bishop of Le Mans presiding over the ceremony. The citizens of Rouen were outraged and threatened to raise Le Mans to the ground if the Young King's body were not restored to them for burial in their cathedral. Leading men who were with the Young King before his death wrote to the pope confirming Young Henry's wish of his place of burial. When Henry II was convinced of his son's wish, he intervened and ordered the body be transported to Rouen, so avoiding a possible war of the cathedral cities. It is not known if an effigy was commissioned at this time for his tomb but around 1300 the cathedral authorities commissioned a series of effigies for the early dukes, who had been buried there and his effigy  may have been part of that series.

Other burials in the cathedral were William Fitzempress (1164) , Henry's uncle, and after his death, Arthur, Duke of Brittany (1203), his cousin, and the heart of his brother, Richard I; his grandmother, the Empress Matilda, was also buried in the cathedral as late as 1846 following the destruction of he original burial site, the Abbey of Bec-Hellouin. Richard's heart burial was also surmounted by an effigy but I do not know how this other burial sites were marked. The heart of King Charles V (of France) was also buried in the cathedral and marked by a lost monument, a drawing of which is shown below; he died in 1380.

The monument of John, Duke of Bedford was surmounted by an effigy which was destroyed during the Religious Wars in 1562; it may well have been made of metal, which would explain this destruction. This was replaced by a plain black marble tomb chest in the 17th century, which was itself removed during the remodeling of the sanctuary in the 1730's

In 1734 the canons of the cathedral decided to elevate the floor of the sanctuary considerably above the surrounding levels. This involved the demolition of several tombs in this area, namely, those of Henry the Young Kings, Richard I, John, Duke of Bedford and that over the heart burial of the French king Charles V. Only inscribed stones were inserted in the floor giving details of the burials, although remains were reburied in the original sites.

Beginning in 1838, excavations in the cathedral discovered the effigy of Richard I  buried underneath the original monument site and below this was a lead casket, enclosed in a cavity,  with lettering indicating that it contained the heart of the king. This, with the fragments of the king's heart, are now in the Museum of Antiquities, Rouen, while the effigy, which had remained in reasonable condition, was restored and mounted on a plinth, originally one which was quite out of keeping, but later the plain one that we see today. A not very accurate drawing of the monument before its destruction can be see below; this shows the effigy mounted on a slab supported by four lion, a designed which may been see in France at that time.

The effigy of the Young King was discovered  1866 buried below it original site but, unlike that of Richard, in a very mutilated condition. The one we see today is either a copy based on that of Richard and earlier drawings, or a major restoration of the unearthed effigy. The reports conflict here and the original mutilated effigy may be preserved in the museum; I'll let you know in due course.

I have not discovered the fate of the other monuments.






Above
is a drawing of the tomb of Pierre de Brézé (see above) before the removal of the effigies of him and his wife
Jeanne de Bec Crespin.


Above: 
Print of the above (with effigies removed) with next  the adjacent tomb of Louis de Brézé (see above). The upper stage of this latter tomb contains an equestrian statue of the commemorated with four figures representing Victory, Faith, Prudence and Glory to either side. Below he is shown as a shrouded corpse; at his head is grieving Diane de Poitiers and at his feet the Virgin and Child

Above: Print (reversed!) of the The Cardinals d'Amboise tomb


Above: Photograph of the effigy of Rollo before its accidental destruction during World War II. This shows that it was not sited in the present position of its replacement but rather in a niche in the wall.
I assume that that of William Longsword was also in a similar position. This explains why they were not destroyed during the remodeling of the quire.



Drawing of the original effigy of Henry, the Young King
Drawing the original monument of Richard I. Only the actual effigy now remains Drawing over the monument of the heart burial of Charles V

A Monument Not Yet Discovered by Me
Barbe Guiffard 17th century. Wife of Claude Groulard, 1st president of the parliament of Normandy. White marble. Originally in the Célestines of Rouen but moved here in 1865

Abbey Church of Saint-Ouen
3 Place de Général de Gaulle
Park as for the cathedral. Again there is no charge for entry or photography. The opening times are restricted, see below. Another large and fine church in this city
These two monuments are in the lady chapel. Like the cathedral this is closed off by a high metal grill entered by a locked gate but it also seems to be used as a store of various objects, some very large, so making photography difficult.
Closed Monday and Friday. Open 10.00am-12.00noon & 14.00pm-5.00pm (6.00pm April - October) Check website

 
Left:    North Wall. Nicolas de Normandie (1092) 4th abbot. Builder of the Romanesque church. Uncle of William the Conqueror. Tomb raised by Jean Roussel  (see below)
Right:
South Wall. Jean Roussel (1339) called Marc-Argent. 23rd abbot of Saint-Ouen. He built the gothic church.
Both of these tombs was destroyed but rebuilt in 1869



Musée des Antiquities
198 Rue Beauvoisine
To be completed. The opening hours are contradictory: they seem to be Tuesday to Saturday 1.30pm to 5.30pm and Sunday 2.00pm to 6.00pm but important to check website.




Manche
Commune
Beaumont-Hague La Bonneville Coutances Cerisy-la-Foret Hémevez Hyenville Joganville
Lessay Lestre La Lucerne-d'Outremer La Mont-Saint-Michel Montviron Réville Savigny-le-Vieux

Cerisy-la-Foret
Abbey of St Vigor
Above: Tile monument to an abbot
Right:   Tile monument

Coutances - Notre Dame Cathedral

Cross Slab
Algare (Algarus, Algardus or Algarius) Bishop from 1132 - 1151

Eure
Commune
Alizay Armières Le Bec-Hellouin Écouis Étrépagny Évreux Fontaine-la-Soret
Hébécourt Louviers Marbeuf Moisville Radepont Saint-Aubin-d'Écrosville Saint-Étienne-l'Allier
Sainte-Trie Saint-Germain-Village Tosny La Vieille-Lyre      

Orne
Commune
Domfront   Trumilly
 


With many thanks to Tony Carr for supplying some of the photographs on this page
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