Victoria & Albert Museum
As well as a series of original effiges, obtained from several churches, in the Museum, there are many monumental effigies which are either plaster casts or electrotypes of the originals. These latter date from the mid and late nineteenth century and were made by leading cast makers of the day; they were bought by the museum to enable visitors to see these effigies without the then difficulty or high cost of travelling to see them. To some extend this still applies today and we must also now add the now additional problem of the ease or possibility of access.

Please note this page is in progress


Westminster Abbey, London
 Eleanor of Castile (1290) , Queen of Edward I. Plaster Cast made 1858 from the gilt bronze effigy made by William Torrel )1291-3).  Sculpture 46a
King Henry VII  (1509) Plaster Cast Gilded made in London in the 1850's. After the gilt bornze effigy by  Pietro Torrigiano. In Storage
King Henry III (1272) Gilt bronze by William Torrel 1292. Plaster cast by Titus Giuseppe Formilli 1911 Sculpture Room 46a
The Temple Church, London
Gilbert Marshall (1241) Plaster cast made 19th C Sculpture Room 46a Robert de Roos (1227) Purbeck marble. Made 1250-75; Plaster Cast made c 1852-1854. Sculpture Room 48a William Marshal the Younger (1231)
2nd Earl of Pembroke
William Marshal the Elder (1219) 1st Earl of Pembroke. Purbeck marble made 3rd quarter of 13th century. Plaster Cast 1852-54 Sculpture Room 46a
  John Talbot (1453) 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. A well respected soldier who fought in the latter stages of the Hundred Years' War; he was killed at the Battle of Castillon, near Bordeaux.  
Emily Finch, Lady Winchilsea (1848) Carrara marble by Lawrence Macdonald 1850  Sculpture Room 24 One of a series to the Finch Family


King Richard I - 'The Lion Heart'- (1199). (Rouen Cathedral, France - Heart Burial - early 13th C) Plaster Cast c 1852-1854. Sculpture Room 46a
Queen Berengaria of Nevarre, Queen of Richard I (L'Epau Abbey, Le Mans, France)  


Above and left: Don Garcia de Osorio (1502) He wears the badge and hat of the Order of Santiago

Below: Doña Maria de Perea (1499) Wife of Don Garcia, above.

These monuments were originally in the Church of St Pedro at Ocaña, near Teledo; it was declared structurally unsafe in 1906 when the monuments were removed. Alabaster made 1499-1505.

 Medieval & Rennaisance Room 50a


Beatrice d'Este (1497) Duchess of Bari & later Milan following her marriage to Ludvico Sforza. She died in childbirth at 21. By Cristoforo Solari. (Oringinal location Church of St Maria delle Gracie, milan; removed to the Certosa in Pavia in 1564) Plaster Cast by Eduoaro Pierotti (Milan, 1893). In storage
Guidarello Guigarelli (1501) (Church of St Francesco, Ravenna) Marble by Tullio Lombardo made 1525 Plaster cast 1885. He was a mercenary leader who was fatally wounded in a quarrel over an elaborate shirt. In storage
Justice Hope Charity Fortitude Temperance
St Peter the Martyr (1252)

He was a Dominician friar who was stabbed to death by a heretic and canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1253.

In 1335 the friars of Sant Eusorgio decided to honour him with a tomb similar to that of St Dominic in Bologna.
It was designed by Nicola Pisano (91264-67)

Plaster Cast made by a Milan firm

Above and to the side are figures of The Cardinal Virtues
Faith   Prudence Obedience
Top left then clockwise: 1. Saving a ship. 2. Restoring speech to the mute. 3. Preaching. 4. Peter's funeral. 5. Saving of a son

Ilaria del Carretto (1405) Wife of Paolo Guinigi, a merchant. (Lucca) After the expulsion of Guinigi from Lucca, the tomb was removed and destroyed except for the tomb chest and effigy. Plaster Cast (1899)
Emperor Henry VII (1313) Holy Roman Emperor. Son of Count Henry VI of Luxemberg (Pisa Cathedral, Pisa) Monument by Tino di Camaino. Plaster Cast by Messrs Franchi and Son, London c 1865 of the marble monument Benzzo Federighi (1450) Bishop of Fiesole. Monument of white marble, terra cota with enamelling and gold leaf by Luca della Robbina (1454-57). Plaster Cast c 1888. In storage
Above: Lady (Milan)

Left Above: Unknown knight Istrian stone made 1370-75(Venice) Medieval & Rennaisance Room 50a
Left Below: Carlo Marsuppini (1453) Chancellor of the Republic of Florence. (Florence) Plaster Cast
An unknown lady. The dress shows she had not taken the full vows of a nun. Marble made 1500-1530  (Napels)
Medieval & Rennaisance room 50a
Cardinal Sforza (1505) 
Gaston de Foix, Duke of Nemours Marble 1515-22 (Lombardy) by Bambaia Plaster Cast (c 1884) (Milan) by Edoardo Pierotti Now in Castello Sforzesco, Milan; originally in Church of St Marta  In storage

List of Church Monument in the Museum Not Shown Above
Commemorated  Date


Origin   Room  Comments
Unknown knight of the de Lucy family Made 1340-50 Totternhoe limestone with gesso, painted & gilded Lesne Abbey, Kent  Medieval & Rennaisance Room 9  Found in underground vault of Lady Chapel during excavations. Shield is scratched with a pike fish (luce) possibly indicating original decoration. This was featured on the arms of the de Lucy family who were patrons of the church 
Unknown lady  Made c. 1490-1510  Painted and gilded poplar and canvas  Castilio, Spain  In storage   
Rev Phillip Clayton (1972) Made 1972 by Cecil Thomas Wood, plasticine and card    In storage  This is a working model for the monument in All Hallows,  Barking He was the founding padre of Toc H
Rt Rev Edward Stuart Talbot (1934)  Made 1934 by Cecil Thomas  Wood, plasticine and card   In storage  This is a working model for the monument of bronze and stone in Southwark Cathedral. Hw was the first bishop of Southwark 
Sir Ralph Fitzherbert (1483) & Elizabeth  late 15th C  Plaster cast from alabaster effigies Norbury, Derbyshire  Sculpture Room 46a   
Cando di Cando c. 1447 Verona Marble Padua In storage Tombstone showing figure in low relief. Latin inscription
Unknown knight (fragment) late 13th - early 14th C Purbeck marble England In storage Left mailed foot only
Sir Nicholas Nicholls c. 1660 by Nicholas Stone Black marble and alabaster, painted  St Denis, Flaxton, Northants British Room 58c The church was demolished in 1958, having fallen into disrepair in the 20th century, the actual hamlet having long dince dissappeared; The V&A accepted the monument in 1965 by which time it was in a poor condition; now restored
Unknown male 1450-1500 terracotta Emilia, Italy Medieval & Renaissance Room 64 Roundel: head in garland. Probably made from death mask to form part of tomb
Unknown male c 1320 Purbeck marble London Medieval & Renaissance Room 10 Incised slab. Excavated during reconstruction of Bank of England in 1934. Probably from Church of St Christopher-le-Stocks, which stood on the site
Member of Moro Family c 1500-50 stone with coloured marble inlays Church of Santa Maria della Misericordia, Venice, Italy Medieval & Renaissance Room 50a  
Angel from tomb of Bartolommeo Aragazzi (1429) c 1430-1438 Marble The Pietepulcianove at Montepulciano Medieval & Renaissance Room 64a When church was demolished in 1617, the monument was dismantled; the other portions are preserved in the Cathedral of Monpulciano
Another of the above          
Angel c 1320 Marble by Tino di Camaino Sienna, Italy Medieval & Renaissance Room 10 Originally part of tomb
Lt Alfred Henry Forster (kia 1918) Made c 1924 by Cecil Thomas Wood, plasticine and card   In storage  This is a working model for the monument of bronze of which four copies were made: Exbury (New Forest); All Hallows, Barking; St John's, Sothend, Kent; and Newcatle Cathedral, Australia
Angel 1270-1280 Stone All Saints, Sawley, Derbyshire Medieval & Renaissance Room 10 Tomb canopy fragment. Effigy of cleric remains in the church
Another of the above          
Pillar from tomb of Emperor Henry VII c 1315 by Tino di Camaino Marble Duomo, Pisa Medieval & Renaissance Room 10 There are two further pillars in the Campo Santo, Pisa
Another of the above          
Lady Fitzalan c  Stone 1280 Plaster cast (c 1850-1900) Chichester Cathedral Sculpture Room 46a  
Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York (1255) mid 13th century Plaster Cast c. 1858 York Minster Sculpture Room 46a  
Feet of unknown knight 13th C Limestone with some gesso England In storage Fragment only
Base of effigy to Bp Hugh de Northwold   Plaster Cast   In storage  
King Edward III (1377)   Plaster cast of gilt-bronze original Westmister Abbey In storage  
Bishop Stanbury   Plaster Cast of Alabaster Original Hereford Cathedral In storage  
Sir Moyle & Lady Elizabeth Finch c 1630 by Nicholas Stone Original marble & alabaster   Sculpture Room 24 given by parish of Eastwell with  Broughton Aluph
Francesco di Giovanni Ferrucci
(Francesco del Tadda)
low relief self portrait terra cotta model Fiesole Cathedral Medieval & Renaissance Room 62 Sketch model for porphyry portrait incorporated into his tomb in the cathedral. Epitaph dated 1576, nine years before his death
Lady Rebecca Atkins (1711) recumbent effigy by William Stanton terra cotta model St Paul's, Clapham, London British Galleries Room 58c Sketch model for effigy
Statuette of Charity Bambaia Marble 1517-22 Milan Medieval & Rennaisance Room 64 One of three thought to have been made for the tomb of Gaston de Foix, commander of French forces in Italy, each by a different scuptured employed by Banbaia
Statuette of Fortitude         another as above
Virgin and Child: part of tomb   Marble 1350-1375 Naples Medieval & Renaissance Room 50a Section of sarcophagus
Monument of Jacopo Stefano Brivio c 1486-88 by Francesco Cazzaniga then Tommaso Cazzaniga & Benedetto Briosco Plaster cast 1895 Milan by Carlo Campi
In Storage  

Further details of the monuments (and related information) can be found on the following paged of the V & A's own website here



Casting the Tombs

 Plaster Casts 

   The initial impression of the original was itself taken in plaster. The original was coated with a thin layer of a separating material to prevent the plaster sticking to the original. Because plaster is rigid when set and because most effigies - other than those in very low relief - have projections and undercut areas these impressions were taken in sections; otherwise it would be impossible to remove the impresson without it fracturing and probably causing damage to the original work. These sections were then reassembled in an outer case and again painted with a separating material or mould seal, and the liquid plaster poured in. The plaster impressions were then removed leaving an accurate reproduction - other than the fine lines where the sections join- of the original effigy. The plaster impressions could be reused to produced a further cast.
   As someone who has used this technique on a small scale, I can only but greatly admire the amazing skill of these cast makers. 

  This process produces a metal copy of the original and is rather similar to the processes used during the production of vinyl and shellac sound recordings. Again an impression of the original is taken but now the impression is coated on the inside with an graphite to give a thin electrically conductive layer. To add a layer of metallic copper to the inside of the impression, it is inserted into an aqueous electrolyte solution of copper sulphate and sulphuric acide, and then connected to a direct electric current source as the cathode, the anode being metallic copper. When the current is activated, the copper anode begins to desolve in the electrolyte and the copper is deposited on the inside of the impression. When this copper reaches the required depth the current is turned off, the impression removed from the elctrolyte and, when the impression is removed from the copper 'lining' a copper copy of the original is produced.
For a history of the V&A's cast collection - of all types of sculpture - click here.
All the photographs kindly provided by Amana Miller of Amanda's Arcade


Return to previous ('Monuments') page click here  City of London  City of Westminster